Section C
Qualities and Skills of an International Judge
Code of Behavior
World Sailing International Judges are among the most exposed officials of the sport. It is therefore essential that judges behave with the highest degree of competence, propriety, and integrity. A judge should never do anything that may bring the sport into disrepute.

Specifically, International Judges are expected to:
  • maintain a high level of understanding and application of the racing rules, cases, procedures, and World Sailing policies;
  • ensure that each decision is based upon the rules and principles of fairness and objectivity, is made with care, and without prejudice;
  • uphold the confidentiality of protest committee deliberations during and after the regatta;
  • be polite, courteous, open-minded, and patient with colleagues, competitors, regatta officials, team officials, coaches, support persons and hosts;
  • to respect cultural differences in colleagues, competitors, regatta officials, team officials, coaches, support persons and hosts;
  • declare any conflict of interest before accepting a protest committee invitation, and thereafter, declare any change of circumstance that might become a new conflict of interest. (See World Sailing Regulation 34 – Conflict of Interest);
  • plan to arrive at the event on time and remain until after the last protest issues are resolved;
  • incur only expenses that are necessary, and when expenses are reimbursed, claim only legitimate and essential out-of-pocket costs, unless any other arrangement has been agreed with the organizing authority;
  • be on time and wear appropriate clothing on the water and ashore;
  • refrain from smoking in the protest committee room, other buildings and areas on the regatta site where smoking is prohibited and while judging on the water;
  • abstain from consuming alcohol before or during a hearing and while afloat. Even if a meal is eaten before the hearings alcohol must be avoided. Judges must never become inebriated during an event.

A judge who does not practice this code of behavior risks the termination of his or her appointment.
Conflict of Interest
In the context of race officials serving at a regatta, a conflict of interest exists as stated in Definition “Conflict of Interest” in Racing Rules of Sailing.

World Sailing has published documents that Race Officials would consult to determine if they have a conflict of interest with regard to serving at a regatta.

These include

These documents are published on the World Sailing website. They are not reprinted here, since regulations and advisory papers may be changed within a quadrennial. They are published here.
Fitness to Serve
International Judges are expected to provide the services that are needed at the type of event where they serve. Before accepting an invitation, it is your responsibility to understand the requirements of the event and your ability to perform the necessary functions. There is a range of activities expected of a judge, not all of which are necessary at each event.

Here are the necessary skills for each function at the event:

Protest hearings and hearings under RRS 69
  • Reading, writing and speaking with the appropriate terms, typically in English;
  • adequate vision and hearing, aided if necessary; 
  • strong reasoning ability and memory for rules analysis and making decisions;
  • assessing and writing both facts and decisions for protests and requests for redress;
  • writing allegation and decisions for RRS 69 hearings

Going afloat to observe the racing
  • license to operate a small craft;
  • Mobility necessary to transfer from dock to boat and from boat to boat (sea legs);
  • agility to maintain one’s balance afloat;
  • boat positioning to observe racing without interfering, considering the sailing characteristics of the class of boats;
  • use of appropriate communication protocol on VHF (often a license is required) and private channel radios;
  • physical fitness to spending long days afloat in any conditions

Judging RRS 42 under Appendix P
  • a thorough understanding of RRS 42, class-specific common kinetics, and the procedures for Appendix P
  • knowledge of class-specific changes to RRS 42
  • boat positioning for judging kinetics while minimizing the inconvenience to racing boats

Direct Judging and Umpiring under Addendum Q
  • a thorough understanding of Addendum Q and its procedures;
  • boat positioning for umpiring medal races and for direct judging of fleet racing;
  • making rapid decisions on breaches of Part 2 of the Racing Rules of Sailing;
  • requirements for judging RRS  42 under Appendix P, if appropriate

Umpiring radio controlled boats
  • a thorough understanding of Appendix E and its procedures;
  • making rapid decisions on breaches of Part 2 of the Racing Rules of Sailing;
  • physical fitness necessary to stand and move along the pier for long days of competition;
  • spending long days outdoors

As one’s capabilities might change over time, the type of event that one is suited to judge may change as well. This means that the type of event that you could judge might change over the course of your career.

  • if you have special needs, inform the Chairman of the protest committee or the representative of the organizing authority who takes care of officials. If you are billeted in a private home, let it be known if you have allergies to any pets or tobacco smoke, etc.;
  • if you have dietary restrictions, let it be known before your arrival;
  • if you have temporary or permanent physical limitations, do not accept the invitation if you cannot fulfill the required protest committee functions;
  • if you need accommodations, advise the organizing authority and Chairman of the protest committee prior to arrival.
Allegation of Inadequate Conduct or Competence
World Sailing Regulation 35 provides for reports alleging inadequate conduct or competence of a World Sailing Race Official to be submitted to the Chief Executive Officer of World Sailing. When such a report is received, World Sailing uses the procedure in Regulation 32 (Race Officials Performance) to consider the allegations. Procedures for investigation if necessary, and possible decisions and sanctions if appropriate, as well as the appeal process available to the Race Official, are described in this Regulation.
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