The Judge recording the penalty should record: the boat’s number; the race number and leg of the course; the time; the infringement; relevant rules and interpretations; what action the competitor took in response to the penalty; and any other special circumstances which may warrant consideration, such as a start being recalled
When observing a competitor taking a Two-Turns Penalty, note the tack they were on when they started and finished their turns. Watch carefully whether the penalized boat takes its complete penalty (Under rule 44.2
, a Two-Turns Penalty includes two tacks and two gybes).
If the Judges penalize two boats at the same time, each will observe one of the penalized boats to see that each boat performs the proper penalty.
If the penalty is just before or after a boat finishes, the Judges should record boats that finish in front of and behind the penalized boat in both the penalized boat’s original finish, and her second finish after performing her penalty turns. The Judges should check the results to make sure that the boat is scored in its correct finishing
position. If the boat fails to finish correctly after doing her penalty turns, they must communicate this to the Race Committee so that they may score her DNF. The responsibility for making sure that the boat complies with the definition of finishing after the penalty initiated by action by the Judges lies with them, and not the Race Committee.
Judges must report all yellow flag penalties and the resulting action taken by competitors to the Judge responsible for recording penalties at the conclusion of the day’s racing. This includes submitting a report of no activity if the Judges did not give any yellow flag penalties.
If a competitor continues to race or performs his penalty turns improperly, the Judges must report that boat’s disqualification to the Judge recording the penalties: DSQ for a first penalty, and DNE for a second, third and subsequent penalty. The judge responsible for recording penalties will advise the Race Committee in accordance with Appendix P2
Penalties. The Judge responsible for checking results should also check the posted results to ensure that they reflect the appropriate penalty. If a competitor requests redress from the posted results the Judges should be prepared to attend a hearing. P4
limits the possibility of redress for actions taken under P1
but not for adjusting a boat's score under P2
When Judges penalize a competitor and the race committee subsequently postpones the start, signals a general recall, or abandons the race, the competitor is not required to take a penalty. If it is the boat’s first breach, the boat does not have to perform a Two-Turns Penalty. If it is the boat’s second or subsequent breach, the boat may participate in any restart (see P3
). However, the Judges must record and report the penalty in the normal manner, since the penalty still counts to determine the number of times the competitor has been penalized during the series.
When the Judges penalize a boat for the third or subsequent time and she fails to retire, her penalty shall be disqualification without a hearing from all races in the regatta. Her score shall be DNE in all races in the regatta, and the protest committee shall consider calling a hearing under rule 69.2
Using a tape or digital voice recorder can be a valuable tool. Some best practices to maximize the benefit include:
- Protect the recorder from water damage and the microphone from wind noise.
- When positioned where tactical infringements are likely to happen, leave the recorder running. This includes the last 90 seconds before the start, throughout mark rounding’s, and while observing finishes.
- When discussing a possible technical infringement, record the conversation between the Judges as you analyze a competitor’s movements. This can be useful later when you are describing what you saw to the competitor.
- When penalizing competitors, record the hail of the penalty and keep the recorder running while the competitors complete their penalties.
- At all times when the recorder is running, take extra care to keep voice and tone objective and impersonal. Refer to competitor by sail number only and avoid personal or editorial comments. Good recordings of well-articulated penalties can significantly improve a Judge’s credibility with the competitors.
- Be aware that some Judges object in principle to being recorded. Ask your fellow Judge’s permission before using a recorder, and consider the recording confidential unless both of you agree to share the recording.
- Occasionally review your recordings. Listen for improvements you can make in articulating the behavior you are seeing.