Search Results for: anticipate

Rule 2, Fair Sailing
Rule 13, While Tacking
Rule 14, Avoiding Contact
Rule 15, Acquiring Right of Way
A boat is not required to anticipate that another boat will break a rule. When a boat acquires right of way as a result of her own actions, the other boat is entitled to room to keep clear.
Rule 10, On Opposite Tacks
Rule 16.1, Changing Course
Rule 64.1(a), Decisions: Penalties and Exoneration
Scimitar vs. Audacious

When she cannot see behind other boats, an obligated boat must anticipate what might appear from the other side of the other boats.
Note: Rule 62.1 -
Paul Zupan
Nationality: United States of America
  • National Umpire
  • International Judge
  • National Judge
- 2016-07-08: Tangles and Redress (IKA Q&A #001)
Redress may only be given if first the competitor could not reasonably have avoided the incident that caused the tangle, and second the competitor's score has been made significantly worse through no fault of his own.

Redress may then be granted to any kind of tangle outlined [in the Q&A], but not for contact without damage as outlined below.

Any kind of contact between kites that which does not qualify under the definition of tangle. This includes "bumping" of kites, catching the lines of another kite with the kite tip etc. Even if both kites capsize (kites in the water) as a result of the contact, this is not a tangle (unless tangled as a result of above action).

Note: if both kites remain in the air and are quickly separated, this is not considered a tangle even if there is a slight wrap-around.

If, prior to the incident, there is clear risk of an incident that could cause a tangle that a prudent competitor would anticipate but the competitor fails to do so, or if a competitor through his own actions created a situation that carries the clear risk of an incident that could cause a tangle, then he will be ineligible for redress.

Examples of where redress would not be given include:

  1. remaining very close to another kiteboard when there has been the opportunity to increase the separation;
  2. looping or otherwise moving the kite when sailing offwind close to another kiteboard.
  3. sailing into a gap between two kiteboards that are keeping clear of each other, when the windward kiteboard will then have to move his kite or alter course to continue to keep clear.
  4. not finishing the race when able to do so.

In all redress requests, it is the competitor's responsibility to show that his score has been, through no fault of his own, made significantly worse.

Note: Competitors who may be looking for "trouble", e.g. to get tangled because they have a bad start or a bad race, and hope to get a better place through an average score, may be subject to a rule 2 or rule 69 hearing (fair sailing or gross misconduct).
Rule 28.1, Sailing the Course
Rule 32.1, Shortening or Abandoning After the Start
Rule 64.1(a), Decisions: Penalties and Exoneration
Rule A5, Scores Determined by the Race Committee
When one boat breaks a rule and, as a result, causes another to touch a mark, the other boat is to be exonerated. The fact that a starting mark has moved, for whatever reason, does not relieve a boat of her obligation to start. A race committee may abandon under rule 32.1(c) only when the change in the mark's position has directly affected the safety or fairness of the competition.
Rule 14, Avoiding Contact
When there is contact that causes damage, a right-of-way boat does not break rule 14 if it was not reasonably possible for her to avoid contact.
Rule 20, Room to Tack at an Obstruction
A boat is entitled to hail for room to tack at the time when she needs to begin the process described in rule 20 to avoid the obstruction safely. A boat that hails must give the hailed boat sufficient time to respond before tacking herself. The hail must clearly convey the hailing boat’s need to tack and be sufficiently loud to be heard in the prevailing conditions. If the hailed boat does not respond, the hailing boat can repeat her hail if time permits, or avoid the obstruction and protest.
Rule 13, While Tacking
Rule 14, Avoiding Contact
Rule 20.2(a), Room to Tack at an Obstruction: Responding
Gadzooks vs. Bubba

A leeward boat that hails and tacks simultaneously breaks rule 20.2(a). A windward boat is not required to anticipate a leeward boat’s actions with respect to a converging right-of-way boat.
Rule 19.2(a), Room to Pass an Obstruction: Giving Room at an Obstruction
Rule 20, Room to Tack at an Obstruction
Rule 64.1(a), Decisions: Penalties and Exoneration
A leeward port-tack boat, hailing for room to tack when faced with an oncoming starboard-tack boat, an obstruction, is not required to anticipate that the windward boat will fail to comply with her obligation to tack promptly or otherwise provide room.
Rule 11, On the Same Tack, Overlapped
Rule 15, Acquiring Right of Way
A boat clear ahead need not take any action to keep clear before being overlapped to leeward from clear astern.
Rule 13 While Tacking
Rule 16.1 Changing Course
A right-of-way boat changing course may comply with rule 16.1 by changing course further and thus giving the other boat room to keep clear.
Rule Keep Clear
The windward boat keeps clear if she continues to respond promptly and in a seamanlike way to each luff of a leeward boat.
Rule 16.1, Changing Course
Rule 36, Races Restarted or Resailed
Rule 60.1, Right to Protest; Right to Request Redress or Rule 69 Action
Rule 62.1(b), Redress
A give-way boat is not required to anticipate a right-of-way boat’s alteration of course.
While rule 36 may remove the possibility of a boat being penalized because the race was recalled, a boat is entitled to have her protest heard. If it is found as a fact in the protest that the other boat broke a rule of Part 2, the protest committee may go on to consider whether redress under rule 62.1(b) is applicable.
Definitions, Keep Clear
Rule 11, On the Same Tack, Overlapped
Rule 14(a), Avoiding Contact
When boats are overlapped on the same tack on converging courses, the moment when the windward boat has failed to keep clear is, by definition, also the moment when the right-of-way boat must take avoiding action if she is to avoid penalization under rule 14, should contact causing damage then occur.
Rule 20.2, Room to Tack at an Obstruction: Responding
Rule 61.2, Protest Requirements: Protest Contents
It is implicit in rule 20.2 that a boat’s hail for room to tack must be capable of being heard by the hailed boat. Although the hailed boat is not required to take any action before the hail is given, she must be on the alert for it and, when it is made, must promptly respond to it.
Neither protestor nor protestee is required to produce a diagram of the incident.
Rule 13, While Tacking
Rule 14, Avoiding Contact
Rule 15, Acquiring the Right of Way
A starboard tack boat need not anticipate that a port tack boat will tack so close to her that the tacking boat will not give her room to keep clear when the tack is completed.
Rule 11, On the Same Tack, Overlapped
Rule 14, Avoiding Contact
Rule 15, Acquiring Right of Way
Rule 21(a), Exoneration
A boat is not required to anticipate that another boat will break a rule. In a changing situation, a newly obligated boat is entitled to room to keep clear.
A significant area where a judge will interface with junior sailors is in the protest room. All sailors, but especially junior sailors, should expect a consistent and fair process, using language they can understand.

The protest hearing should be formal, and the judges should be firm, respectful, and helpful to all participants.

Junior sailors may not have had previous experience in a protest hearing. Ask at the start of the hearing, if this is their first hearing. If it is, the chairman should inform the parties and their coaches and witnesses of the process that will be followed, both initially and as the hearing proceeds.

Judges should use the vocabulary of the rules throughout the hearing and when communicating the facts found, conclusion and decisions. This will avoid misunderstanding.

A younger sailor may not have a full understanding of the terminology, rules and procedures. For example, it may be appropriate to ask questions that using defined terms and giving their meaning as well. “Was your spinnaker ahead of the other boat’s rudder?” may be a better question than, “Were you overlapped?”

Anticipate and arrange for interpreters prior to hearings between sailors with no common language. Where possible, have a judge who speaks the same language as the competitor(s) act as an interpreter. Otherwise, qualified coaches and other team supporters may be used as interpreters.
When judging any sport, being in the right position at the right time is crucial to doing a good job. For on-the-water rule 42 judging, the objective is to place boats in positions where they are close to potential problems. This requires: 

  • Knowledge of the fleet racing tactics - to anticipate the movements of the competitors. 
  •  Knowledge of the characteristics of the specific boat designs - to know what types of prohibited kinetics are most effective for that boat type. 
  •  Taking into account the types of boats racing, Jury boats, number of Judges, conditions, course configurations, and local geography – to maximize the Judges’ ability to cover to whole fleet throughout the race. 
  •  Common sense and diligent focus - to react to changing circumstances promptly. 
  •  On-going awareness of the positions of the other Judge boats. 

While it is clearly not possible to monitor all the boats all of the time, it is an achievable goal for the Judge boats to cover the course such that every racing boat is aware of their presence at some time during each race. The best way to be effective is to position your boat near the front of the fleet and motor along at a similar speed to the competitors. The Judges should pay closer attention to the leaders, but look with a wide vision, to scan as many competitors as possible. 
In many regattas with multi-fleets the Judges have insufficient resources to cover all of them. If choices have to be made Judges should prioritize starts, downwind legs, and finishing legs. 
When penalizing a boat, the driver must balance the need to be close enough to the competitor to signal the penalty clearly, while remaining sufficiently far away to stay clear of the penalty turns that the competitor may perform. 
Judges operating boats are responsible for ensuring that they minimize their engine wash, and that they position their boat in a manner that will minimize the effects of their wind shadow. 
Judge boats should try to cross boats at right angles maintaining a predictable course when close to competitors. Jury boats should be a minimum of five boat lengths away when crossing in front and one boat-length away when crossing behind. On downwind legs, be aware that in surfing conditions, competitors will often make dramatic course changes to take best advantage of the waves. If you find yourself too close to the boats, your best option may well be to stop and let the competitor sail around you. When doing this, the Jury boat driver can raise both hands up high as a signal to the competitors that the Jury boat has stopped. 
Except at the start and during the first beat, Jury boats should position themselves so they are visible to the maximum number of competing boats. 
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