Part 3
CONDUCT OF A RACE
25
NOTICE OF RACE, SAILING INSTRUCTIONS AND SIGNALS
25.1
The notice of race and sailing instructions shall be made available to each boat before a race begins.
25.2
The meanings of the visual and sound signals stated in Race Signals shall not be changed except under rule 86.1(b).  The meanings of any other signals that may be used shall be stated in the sailing instructions.
25.3
When the race committee is required to display a flag as a visual signal, it may use a flag or other object of a similar appearance.
26
STARTING RACES
Races shall be started by using the following signals. Times shall be taken from the visual signals; the absence of a sound signal shall be disregarded.
Minutes before starting signal Visual Signal Sound signal Means
5* Class flag One Warning signal
4 P, I, Z, Z with I, U, or black flag One Preparatory signal
1 Preparatory flag removed One long One minute
0 Class flag removed One Starting signal
* or as stated in the sailing instructions
The warning signal for each succeeding class shall be made with or after the starting signal of the preceding class.
27
OTHER RACE COMMITTEE ACTIONS BEFORE THE STARTING SIGNAL
27.1
No later than the warning signal, the race committee shall signal or otherwise designate the course to be sailed if the sailing instructions have not stated the course, and it may replace one course signal with another and signal that wearing personal flotation devices is required (display flag Y with one sound).
27.2
No later than the preparatory signal, the race committee may move a starting mark.
27.3
Before the starting signal, the race committee may for any reason postpone (display flag APAP over H, or AP over A, with two sounds) or abandon the race (display flag N over H, or N over A, with three sounds)
28
SAILING THE COURSE
28.1
A boat shall start, sail the course described in the sailing instructions and finish. While doing so, she may leave on either side a mark that does not begin, bound or end the leg she is sailing. After finishing she need not cross the finishing line completely.
28.2
A string representing a boat's track from the time she begins to approach the starting line from its pre-start side to start until she finishes shall, when drawn taut,
  1. pass each mark on the required side and in the correct order,
  2. touch each rounding mark, and
  3. pass between the marks of a gate from the direction of the previous mark.
She may correct any errors to comply with this rule, provided she has not finished.
29
RECALLS
29.1
Individual Recall
When at a boat's starting signal any part of her hull, crew or equipment is on the course side of the starting line or she must comply with rule 30.1, the race committee shall promptly display flag X with one sound.  The flag shall be displayed until all such boats have sailed completely to the pre-start side of the of the starting line or one of its extensions and have complied with rule 30.1 if it applies, but no later than four minutes after the starting signal or one minute before any later starting signal, whichever is earlier. If rule 30.3 or 30.4 applies this rule does not.



29.2
General Recall
When at the starting signal the race committee is unable to identify boats that are on the course side of the starting line or to which rule 30 applies, or there has been an error in the starting procedure, the race committee may signal a general recall (display the First Substitute with two sounds). The warning signal for a new start for the recalled class shall be made one minute after the First Substitute is removed (one sound), and the starts for any succeeding classes shall follow the new start.
30
STARTING PENALTIES
30.1
I Flag Rule
If flag I has been displayed, and any part of a boat's hull, crew or equipment is on the course side of the starting line or one of its extensions during the last minute before her starting signal, she shall sail across an extension to the pre-start side before starting.
30.2
Z Flag Rule
If flag Z has been displayed, no part of a boat’s hull, crew or equipment shall be in the triangle formed by the ends of the starting line and the first mark during the last minute before her starting signal. If a boat breaks this rule and is identified, she shall receive, without a hearing, a 20% Scoring Penalty calculated as stated in rule 44.3(c). She shall be penalized even if the race is restarted or resailed, but not if it is postponed or abandoned before the starting signal. If she is similarly identified during a subsequent attempt to start the same race, she shall receive an additional 20% Scoring Penalty.
30.3
U Flag Rule
If flag U has been displayed, no part of a boat’s hull, crew or equipment shall be in the triangle formed by the ends of the starting line and the first mark during the last minute before her starting signal. If a boat breaks this rule and is identified, she shall be disqualified without a hearing, but not if the race is restarted or resailed.
30.4
Black Flag Rule
If a black flag has been displayed, no part of a boat’s hull, crew or equipment shall be in the triangle formed by the ends of the starting line and the first mark during the last minute before her starting signal. If a boat breaks this rule and is identified, she shall be disqualified without a hearing, even if the race is restarted or resailed, but not if it is postponed or abandoned before the starting signal. If a general recall is signaled or the race is abandoned after the starting signal, the race committee shall display her sail number before the next warning signal for that race, and if the race is restarted or resailed she shall not sail in it. If she does so, her disqualification shall not be excluded in calculating her series score.
31
TOUCHING A MARK
While racing, a boat shall not touch a starting mark before starting a mark that begins, bounds or ends the leg of the course on which she is sailing, or a finishing mark after finishing.
32
SHORTENING OR ABANDONING AFTER THE START
32.1
After the starting signal, the race committee may shorten the course (display flag S with two sounds) or abandon the race (display flag N, N over H, or N over A, with three sounds),
  1. because of foul weather,
  2. because of insufficient wind making it unlikely that any boat will finish within the time limit,
  3. because a mark is missing or out of position, or
  4. for any other reason directly affecting the safety or fairness of the competition,
In addition, the race committee may shorten the course so that other scheduled races can be sailed, or abandon the race because of an error in the starting procedure. However, after one boat has sailed the course and finished within the time limit, if any, the race committee shall not abandon the race without considering the consequences for all boats in the race or series.
32.2
If the race committee signals a shortened course (displays flag S with two sounds), the finishing line shall be,
  1. at a rounding mark, between the mark and a staff displaying flag S;
  2. a line the course requires boats to cross; or
  3. at a gate, between the gate marks.
The shortened course shall be signaled before the first boat crosses the finishing line.
33
CHANGING THE NEXT LEG OF THE COURSE
The race committee may change a leg of the course that begins at a rounding mark or at a gate by changing the position of the next mark (or the finishing line) and signalling all boats before they begin the leg. The next mark need not be in position at that time.
  1. If the direction of the leg will be changed, the signal shall be the display of flag C with repetitive sounds and one or both of
    1. the new compass bearing or
    2. a green triangle for a change to starboard or a red rectangle for a change to port.
  2. If the length of the leg will be changed, the signal shall be the display of flag C with repetitive sounds and a ‘–’ if the length will be decreased or a ‘+’ if it will be increased.
  3. Subsequent legs may be changed without further signalling to maintain the course shape.
34
MARK MISSING
If a mark is missing or out of position, the race committee shall, if possible,
  1. replace it in its correct position or substitute a new one of similar appearance, or
  2. substitute an object displaying flag M and make repetitive sound signals.
35
TIME LIMIT AND SCORES
If one boat sails the course as required by rule 28 and finishes within the time limit, if any, all boats that finish shall be scored according to their finishing places unless the race is abandoned. If no boat finishes within the time limit, the race committee shall abandon the race.
36
RACES RESTARTED OR RESAILED
If a race is restarted or resailed, a breach of a rule in the original race, or in any previous restart or resail of that race shall not
  1. prohibit a boat from competing unless she has broken rule 30.4; or
  2. cause a boat to be penalized except under rule 30.2, 30.4 or 69 or under rule 14 when she has caused injury or serious damage.
Part 4
OTHER REQUIREMENTS WHEN RACING
Part 4 rules apply only to boats racing unless the rule states otherwise.
40
PERSONAL FLOTATION DEVICES
When flag Y is displayed with one sound before or with the warning signal, competitors shall wear personal flotation devices, except briefly while changing or adjusting clothing or personal equipment. When flag Y is displayed ashore, this rule applies at all times while afloat. Wet suits and dry suits are not personal flotation devices.
41
OUTSIDE HELP
A boat shall not receive help from any outside source, except
  1. help for a crew member who is ill, injured or in danger;
  2. after a collision, help from the crew of the other vessel to get clear;
  3. help in the form of information freely available to all boats;
  4. unsolicited information from a disinterested source, which may be another boat in the same race.
However, a boat that gains a significant advantage in the race from help received under rule 41(a) may be protested and penalized; any penalty may be less than disqualification.
42
PROPULSION
42.1
Basic Rule
Except when permitted in rule 42.3 or 45, a boat shall compete by using only the wind and water to increase, maintain or decrease her speed. Her crew may adjust the trim of sails and hull, and perform other acts of seamanship, but shall not otherwise move their bodies to propel the boat.
42.2
Prohibited Actions
Without limiting the application of rule 42.1, these actions are prohibited:
  1. pumping: repeated fanning of any sail either by pulling in and releasing the sail or by vertical or athwartship body movement;
  2. rocking: repeated rolling of the boat, induced by
    1. body movement,
    2. repeated adjustment of the sails or centreboard, or
    3. steering;
  3. ooching: sudden forward body movement, stopped abruptly;
  4. sculling: repeated movement of the helm that is either forceful or that propels the boat forward or prevents her from moving astern;
  5. repeated tacks or gybes unrelated to changes in the wind or to tactical considerations.
42.3
Exceptions
  1. A boat may be rolled to facilitate steering.
  2. A boat’s crew may move their bodies to exaggerate the rolling that facilitates steering the boat through a tack or a gybe, provided that, just after the tack or gybe is completed, the boat’s speed is not greater than it would have been in the absence of the tack or gybe.
  3. Except on a beat to windward, when surfing (rapidly accelerating down the front of a wave) or planing is possible, the boat’s crew may pull in any sail in order to initiate surfing or planing, but each sail may be pulled in only once for each wave or gust of wind.
  4. When a boat is above a close-hauled course and either stationary or moving slowly, she may scull to turn to a closehauled course.
  5. If a batten is inverted, the boat’s crew may pump the sail until the batten is no longer inverted. This action is not permitted if it clearly propels the boat.
  6. A boat may reduce speed by repeatedly moving her helm.
  7. Any means of propulsion may be used to help a person or another vessel in danger.
  8. To get clear after grounding or colliding with a vessel or object, a boat may use force applied by her crew or the crew of the other vessel and any equipment other than a propulsion engine. However, the use of an engine may be permitted by rule 42.3(i).
  9. Sailing instructions may, in stated circumstances, permit propulsion using an engine or any other method, provided the boat does not gain a significant advantage in the race.
Note; Interpretations of rule 42 are available at the World Sailing website or by mail upon request
43
COMPETITOR CLOTHING AND EQUIPMENT
43.1
  1. Competitors shall not wear or carry clothing or equipment for the purpose of increasing their weight.
  2. Furthermore, a competitor’s clothing and equipment shall not weigh more than 8 kilograms, excluding a hiking or trapeze harness and clothing (including footwear) worn only below the knee. Class rules or sailing instructions may specify a lower weight or a higher weight up to 10 kilograms. Class rules may include footwear and other clothing worn below the knee within that weight. A hiking or trapeze harness shall have positive buoyancy and shall not weigh more than 2 kilograms, except that class rules may specify a higher weight up to 4 kilograms. Weights shall be determined as required by Appendix H.
43.2
Rule 43.1(b) does not apply to boats required to be equipped with lifelines.
44
PENALTIES AT THE TIME OF AN INCIDENT
44.1
Taking a Penalty
A boat may take a Two-Turns Penalty when she may have broken one or more rules of Part 2 in an incident while racing. She may take a One-Turn Penalty when she may have broken rule 31. Alternatively, sailing instructions may specify the use of the Scoring Penalty or some other penalty, in which case the specified penalty shall replace the One-Turn and the Two-Turns Penalty. However,
  1. when a boat may have broken a rule of Part 2 and rule 31 in the same incident she need not take the penalty for breaking rule 31;
  2. if the boat caused injury or serious damage or, despite taking a penalty, gained a significant advantage in the race or series by her breach her penalty shall be to retire.
44.2
One-Turn and Two-Turns Penalties
After getting well clear of other boats as soon after the incident as possible, a boat takes a One-Turn or Two-Turns Penalty by promptly making the required number of turns in the same direction, each turn including one tack and one gybe. When a boat takes the penalty at or near the finishing line, she shall sail completely to the course side of the line before finishing.
44.3
Scoring Penalty
  1. A boat takes a Scoring Penalty by displaying a yellow flag at the first reasonable opportunity after the incident.
  2. When a boat has taken a Scoring Penalty, she shall keep the yellow flag displayed until finishing and call the race committee’s attention to it at the finishing line. At that time she shall also inform the race committee of the identity of the other boat involved in the incident. If this is impracticable, she shall do so at the first reasonable opportunity and within the time limit for protests.
  3. The race score for a boat that takes a Scoring Penalty shall be the score she would have received without that penalty, made worse by the number of places stated in the sailing instructions. When the sailing instructions do not state the number of places, the penalty shall be 20% of the score for Did Not Finish, rounded to the nearest whole number (0.5 rounded upward). The scores of other boats shall not be changed; therefore, two boats may receive the same score. However, the penalty shall not cause the boat’s score to be worse than the score for Did Not Finish.
45
HAULING OUT; MAKING FAST; ANCHORING
A boat shall be afloat and off moorings at her preparatory signal. Thereafter, she shall not be hauled out or made fast except to bail out, reef sails or make repairs. She may anchor or the crew may stand on the bottom. She shall recover the anchor before continuing in the race unless she is unable to do so.
46
PERSON IN CHARGE
A boat shall have on board a person in charge designated by the member or organization that entered the boat. See rule 75.
47
LIMITATIONS ON EQUIPMENT AND CREW
47.1
A boat shall use only the equipment on board at her preparatory signal.
47.2
No person on board shall intentionally leave, except when ill or injured, or to help a person or vessel in danger, or to swim. A person leaving the boat by accident or to swim shall be back on board before the boat continues in the race.
48
FOG SIGNALS AND LIGHTS; TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEMES
48.1
When safety requires, a boat shall sound fog signals and show lights as required by the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (IRPCAS) or applicable government rules.
48.2
A boat shall comply with rule 10, Traffic Separation Schemes, of the IRPCAS.
49
CREW POSITION; LIFELINES
49.1
Competitors shall use no device designed to position their bodies outboard, other than hiking straps and stiffeners worn under the thighs.

49.2
When lifelines are required by the class rules or any other rule, competitors shall not position any part of their torsos outside them, except briefly to perform a necessary task. On boats equipped with upper and lower lifelines, a competitor sitting on the deck facing outboard with his waist inside the lower lifeline may have the upper part of his body outside the upper lifeline. Unless a class rule or any other rule specifies a maximum deflection, lifelines shall be taut. If the class rules do not specify the material or minimum diameter of lifelines, they shall comply with the corresponding specifications in the World Sailing Offshore Special Regulations.
Note: Those regulations are available at the World Sailing website.
50
SETTING AND SHEETING SAILS
50.1
Changing Sails
When headsails or spinnakers are being changed, a replacing sail may be fully set and trimmed before the replaced sail is lowered. However, only one mainsail and, except when changing, only one spinnaker shall be carried set at a time.
50.2
Spinnaker Poles; Whisker Poles
Only one spinnaker pole or whisker pole shall be used at a time except when gybing. When in use, it shall be attached to the foremost mast.
50.3
Use of Outriggers
  1. No sail shall be sheeted over or through an outrigger, except as permitted in rule 50.3(b) or 50.3(c). An outrigger is any fitting or other device so placed that it could exert outward pressure on a sheet or sail at a point from which, with the boat upright, a vertical line would fall outside the hull or deck. For the purpose of this rule, bulwarks, rails and rubbing strakes are not part of the hull or deck and the following are not outriggers: a bowsprit used to secure the tack of a sail, a bumkin used to sheet the boom of a sail, or a boom of a boomed headsail that requires no adjustment when tacking.
  2. Any sail may be sheeted to or led above a boom that is regularly used for a sail and is permanently attached to the mast from which the head of the sail is set.
  3. A headsail may be sheeted or attached at its clew to a spinnaker pole or whisker pole, provided that a spinnaker is not set.

50.4
Headsails
For the purposes of rules 50 and 54 and Appendix G, the difference between a headsail and a spinnaker is that the width of a headsail, measured between the midpoints of its luff and leech, is less than 75% of the length of its foot. A sail tacked down behind the foremost mast is not a headsail.
51
MOVABLE BALLAST
All movable ballast, including sails that are not set, shall be properly stowed. Water, dead weight or ballast shall not be moved for the purpose of changing trim or stability. Floorboards, bulkheads, doors, stairs and water tanks shall be left in place and all cabin fixtures kept on board. However, bilge water may be bailed out.
52
MANUAL POWER
A boat’s standing rigging, running rigging, spars and movable hull appendages shall be adjusted and operated only by the power provided by the crew.
53
SKIN FRICTION
A boat shall not eject or release a substance, such as a polymer, or have specially textured surfaces that could improve the character of the flow of water inside the boundary layer.
54
FORESTAYS AND HEADSAIL TACKS
Forestays and headsail tacks, except those of spinnaker staysails when the boat is not close-hauled, shall be attached approximately on a boat’s centreline.
55
TRASH DISPOSAL
A competitor shall not intentionally put trash in the water. This rule applies at all times while afloat. The penalty for a breach of this rule may be less than disqualification.