Races shall be started by using the following signals. Times shall be taken from the visual signals; the absence of a sound signal shall be disregarded.
Minutes before Visual Signal Sound Means
starting signal Signal
5* Class flag One Warning signal
, or black flag One Preparatory signal
1 Preparatory flag removed One long One minute
0 Class flag removed One Starting signal
* or as stated in the notice of race or sailing instructions
The warning signal for each succeeding class shall be made with or after the starting signal of the preceding class.