Facts for Question 1
A, B and C are overlapped and on the same tack when the first of them reaches the zone of a mark. A is on the outside, C is on the inside and B is between them.
Does rule 18.2
require A to give enough space to B to enable B to give mark-room to C?
Yes. The definition Mark-Room uses the defined term "room", and room includes the space a boat needs to comply with her obligations under the rules of Part 2 and rule 31
. The space that A is required to give to B includes the space B needs to comply with her obligations under the rules of Part 2. Therefore, rule 18.2
requires A to give B sufficient space for B to give C mark-room.
Facts for Question 2
L, M and W are overlapped and on the same tack with L to leeward, W to windward and M between them. L has no proper course restriction and she luffs. Both M and W luff in response to L's luff.
Does rule 16.1
require L to give enough space to M to enable M to give room to W to keep clear?
Yes. When M changes course to keep clear of L, rule 16.1
requires M to give W room to keep clear. The space that L is required to give to M includes the space M needs to comply with her obligations under the rules of Part 2. Therefore, rule 16.1
requires L to give M sufficient space for M to give W room to keep clear.
Facts for Question 3
The mark at the starboard end of the starting line is surrounded by navigable water. When approaching the starting line to start, L and W are overlapped on starboard tack. L is sailing a course that will pass sufficiently far from the mark that there is space for W to sail between L and the mark. W sails into the space that L freely gives. After W is alongside the mark L luffs, and by luffing promptly in response W keeps clear of L. However, in order to keep clear of L, W is compelled to touch the mark.
Does L comply with rule 16.1
No. W is required to keep clear under rule 11
and, as stated in the preamble to Section C, she is not entitled to room under rule 19
or mark-room under rule 18
. However, when L changes course W is entitled to room to keep clear of L under rule 16.1
, including the space W needs to comply with rule 31
. L's change of course compels W to touch the mark. L breaks rule 16.1
and, under either rule 21
(b) or rule 64.1
(a), W is exonerated for her breach of rule 31
Assumed Facts for Question 4
The same as the facts for Question 3 except that rule 31
has been deleted by the rules of Appendix B or F or by the sailing instructions, and the mark is a committee boat or other substantial object.
Does L comply with rule 16.1
No. A boat entitled to room under rule 16.1
is entitled to the space she needs to maneuver in a seamanlike way to keep clear. Touching such a mark risks damaging either the boat racing or the committee boat, and taking such a risk is not seamanlike.
World Sailing 2010/revised by World Sailing 2013.