Three boats, Y, X and B, are reaching on proper courses. Y is approximately two lengths directly behind X’s stern. B is overlapped to windward of Y and half a length ahead. X slows, intending to luff B. B hails for room to pass to leeward of X and bears away, causing Y to have to bear away to avoid her. Y protests. What should the call be?
**Answer 1**
**Question 2**
**Answer 2**
**Question 3**
**Answer 3**
**Question 4**
**Answer 4**
**Question 5**
**Answer 5**

Penalize B.

X is a right-of-way boat and is therefore an obstruction to B and Y. Because Y is a right-of-way boat with regard to B, Y may choose to pass X on either side. B must keep clear of Y, but if Y chooses to pass X to leeward, she must give B room between her and X. When B bears away between positions 1 and 2, she fails to keep clear as windward boat and breaks rule 11.

Would the answer be the same if Y is sailing a course to pass to leeward of X?

No. If at position 1, Y is sailing a course to pass to leeward of X then, at the point when B needs to commit to passing to leeward of X, Y is the outside boat and must give B room under rule 19.2(b). If she fails to do so, penalize Y. B is exonerated under rule 21 for breaking rule 11 while sailing within the room to which she is entitled under rule 19.2.

B and Y are sailing on a broad-reach leg and are approaching A, who is moving slowly. Y’s bow is about half of a boat-length behind B’s bow and B is steering a course to pass to leeward of A. At position 1, Y hails for room to pass to leeward of A. At position 2, B is overlapped to leeward of A and there is no longer room for Y to pass between them. Y luffs to keep clear of A and protests. What should the call be?

No penalty. When, after position 1, boats B and Y are at the obstruction A, rule 19 requires the outside boat B to give the inside boat Y room between B and A. However, at position 2, B is no longer required to keep clear of A and, as a result, A is no longer an obstruction. Because A is not an obstruction, rule 19 no longer applies between B and Y, and B is therefore no longer required to give Y room to pass to leeward of A. Y keeps clear of B and A as required by rules 11 and 12, respectively.

Similar to question 3, except that Y’s bow is about half of a boat-length ahead of B’s bow and B is steering a course directly toward A’s transom. At position 2, Y becomes overlapped to windward of A. Shortly thereafter, B bears away and passes to leeward of A. X protests. What should the call be?

No penalty. Rule 19 begins to apply between positions 1 and 2 when B and Y are at the obstruction A. Rule 19.1(a) gives B the right to choose which side to pass the obstruction. At the time rule 19 begins to apply, neither B nor Y is outside or inside with respect to A, and therefore rule 19.2(b) is not applicable.

At position 2, Y becomes overlapped to windward of A. Y is now the outside boat, and must give B room to sail between her and the obstruction under rule 19.2(b) if B chooses to do so. However, B chooses to go below A. When B becomes overlapped to leeward of A, B becomes an obstruction to Y and A and, accordingly, Y must give A room between her and B. Y gives A room as required by rule 19.2(b) and keeps clear of her as required by rule 11.

Similar to question 4, except that B and Y are steering a course to pass to leeward of A. At position 2, Y becomes overlapped to leeward of A. A luffs to keep clear and protests. What should the call be?

No penalty. B and Y are sailing a proper course and therefore do not break rule 17. At position 1, Y keeps clear of B as required by rule 11. At position 2, Y becomes overlapped to leeward of A. B is now an obstruction to Y and A. As the outside boat, A must give Y room between her and B, provided that she is able to do so from the time the overlap began. A must also keep clear of Y under rule 11. A gives room and keeps clear by luffing.