Interpretation of the phrase 'on a beat to windward.'
Rule 16.2 states that it applies between boats on opposite tacks on a beat to windward. Rule 18.1(a), states that rule 18.1(a) does not apply between boats on opposite tacks on a beat to windward.
For the purposes of these rules, when are boats on opposite tacks on a beat to windward?
Two boats on opposite tacks are on a beat to windward when, after their starting signal,
the course each of them would choose in order to sail the course and finish as soon as possible, in the absence of all other boats, is closehauled or above, or
one or both of them are overstanding a close-hauled layline to their next mark. A boat on the windward side of a close-hauled layline to a leeward mark is not ‘overstanding’ that layline, she is ‘above’ that layline
Examples In each of the situations 1 to 6 that follow, the boats shown are on opposite tacks on a beat to windward and are either below, on or overstanding a closehauled layline to the next mark of their course. This mark may be a rounding mark, a passing or limit mark, a gate mark or a finishing mark.
Situations 5 and 6 illustrate two boats on a beat to windward in the zone of a mark to be left to port. In situation 5 condition (1) applies and in situation 6 condition (2) applies.
In situation 7 each pair of boats below is on a beat to windward and the starboard-tack boats are each subject to rule 16.2. World Sailing 2021
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