Part 3
CONDUCT OF A RACE
25
NOTICE OF RACE, SAILING INSTRUCTIONS AND SIGNALS
25.1
The notice of race and sailing instructions shall be made available to each boat before a race begins.
25.2
The meanings of the visual and sound signals stated in Race Signals shall not be changed except under rule 86.1(b).  The meanings of any other signals that may be used shall be stated in the sailing instructions.
25.3
When the race committee is required to display a flag as a visual signal, it may use a flag or other object of a similar appearance.
26
STARTING RACES
Races shall be started by using the following signals. Times shall be taken from the visual signals; the absence of a sound signal shall be disregarded.
Minutes before starting signal Visual Signal Sound signal Means
5* Class flag One Warning signal
4 P, I, Z, Z with I, U, or black flag One Preparatory signal
1 Preparatory flag removed One long One minute
0 Class flag removed One Starting signal
* or as stated in the sailing instructions
The warning signal for each succeeding class shall be made with or after the starting signal of the preceding class.
27
OTHER RACE COMMITTEE ACTIONS BEFORE THE STARTING SIGNAL
27.1
No later than the warning signal, the race committee shall signal or otherwise designate the course to be sailed if the sailing instructions have not stated the course, and it may replace one course signal with another and signal that wearing personal flotation devices is required (display flag Y with one sound).
27.2
No later than the preparatory signal, the race committee may move a starting mark.
27.3
Before the starting signal, the race committee may for any reason postpone (display flag APAP over H, or AP over A, with two sounds) or abandon the race (display flag N over H, or N over A, with three sounds)
28
SAILING THE COURSE
28.1
A boat shall start, sail the course described in the sailing instructions and finish. While doing so, she may leave on either side a mark that does not begin, bound or end the leg she is sailing. After finishing she need not cross the finishing line completely.
28.2
A string representing a boat's track from the time she begins to approach the starting line from its pre-start side to start until she finishes shall, when drawn taut,
  1. pass each mark on the required side and in the correct order,
  2. touch each rounding mark, and
  3. pass between the marks of a gate from the direction of the previous mark.
She may correct any errors to comply with this rule, provided she has not finished.
29
RECALLS
29.1
Individual Recall
When at a boat's starting signal any part of her hull, crew or equipment is on the course side of the starting line or she must comply with rule 30.1, the race committee shall promptly display flag X with one sound.  The flag shall be displayed until all such boats have sailed completely to the pre-start side of the of the starting line or one of its extensions and have complied with rule 30.1 if it applies, but no later than four minutes after the starting signal or one minute before any later starting signal, whichever is earlier. If rule 30.3 or 30.4 applies this rule does not.



29.2
General Recall
When at the starting signal the race committee is unable to identify boats that are on the course side of the starting line or to which rule 30 applies, or there has been an error in the starting procedure, the race committee may signal a general recall (display the First Substitute with two sounds).  The warning signal for a new start for the recalled class shall be made one minute after the First Substitute is removed (one sound), and the starts for any succeeding classes shall follow the new start.
30
STARTING PENALTIES
30.1
I Flag Rule
If flag I has been displayed, and any part of a boat's hull, crew or equipment is on the course side of the starting line or one of its extensions during the last minute before her starting signal, she shall sail across an extension to the pre-start side before starting.
30.2
Z Flag Rule
If flag Z has been displayed, no part of a boat’s hull, crew or equipment shall be in the triangle formed by the ends of the starting line and the first mark during the last minute before her starting signal. If a boat breaks this rule and is identified, she shall receive, without a hearing, a 20% Scoring Penalty calculated as stated in rule 44.3(c). She shall be penalized even if the race is restarted or resailed, but not if it is postponed or abandoned before the starting signal. If she is similarly identified during a subsequent attempt to start the same race, she shall receive an additional 20% Scoring Penalty.
30.3
U Flag Rule
If flag U has been displayed, no part of a boat’s hull, crew or equipment shall be in the triangle formed by the ends of the starting line and the first mark during the last minute before her starting signal. If a boat breaks this rule and is identified, she shall be disqualified without a hearing, but not if the race is restarted or resailed.
30.4
Black Flag Rule
If a black flag has been displayed, no part of a boat’s hull, crew or equipment shall be in the triangle formed by the ends of the starting line and the first mark during the last minute before her starting signal. If a boat breaks this rule and is identified, she shall be disqualified without a hearing, even if the race is restarted or resailed, but not if it is postponed or abandoned before the starting signal. If a general recall is signaled or the race is abandoned after the starting signal, the race committee shall display her sail number before the next warning signal for that race, and if the race is restarted or resailed she shall not sail in it. If she does so, her disqualification shall not be excluded in calculating her series score.
31
TOUCHING A MARK
While racing, a boat shall not touch a starting mark before starting a mark that begins, bounds or ends the leg of the course on which she is sailing, or a finishing mark after finishing.
32
SHORTENING OR ABANDONING AFTER THE START
32.1
After the starting signal, the race committee may shorten the course (display flag S with two sounds) or abandon the race (display flag N, N over H, or N over A, with three sounds), as appropriate,
  1. because of an error in the starting procedure,
  2. because of foul weather,
  3. because of insufficient wind making it unlikely that any boat will finish within the time limit,
  4. because a mark is missing or out of position, or
  5. for any other reason directly affecting the safety or fairness of the competition,
In addition, the race committee may shorten the course so that other scheduled races can be sailed, or abandon the race because of an error in the starting procedure. However, after one boat has sailed the course and finished within the time limit, if any, the race committee shall not abandon the race without considering the consequences for all boats in the race or series.
32.2
If the race committee signals a shortened course (displays flag S with two sounds), the finishing line shall be,
  1. at a rounding mark, between the mark and a staff displaying flag S;
  2. a line the course requires boats to cross; or
  3. at a gate, between the gate marks.
The shortened course shall be signaled before the first boat crosses the finishing line.
33
CHANGING THE NEXT LEG OF THE COURSE
The race committee may change a leg of the course that begins at a rounding mark or at a gate by changing the position of the next mark (or the finishing line) and signalling all boats before they begin the leg. The next mark need not be in position at that time.
  1. If the direction of the leg will be changed, the signal shall be the display of flag C with repetitive sounds and one or both of
    1. the new compass bearing or
    2. a green triangle for a change to starboard or a red rectangle for a change to port.
  2. If the length of the leg will be changed, the signal shall be the display of flag C with repetitive sounds and a ‘–’ if the length will be decreased or a ‘+’ if it will be increased.
  3. Subsequent legs may be changed without further signalling to maintain the course shape.
34
MARK MISSING
If a mark is missing or out of position, the race committee shall, if possible,
  1. replace it in its correct position or substitute a new one of similar appearance, or
  2. substitute an object displaying flag M and make repetitive sound signals.
35
TIME LIMIT AND SCORES
If one boat sails the course as required by rule 28 and finishes within the time limit, if any, all boats that finish shall be scored according to their finishing places unless the race is abandoned. If no boat finishes within the time limit, the race committee shall abandon the race.
36
RACES RESTARTED OR RESAILED
If a race is restarted or resailed, a breach of a rule in the original race, or in any previous restart or resail of that race shall not
  1. prohibit a boat from competing unless she has broken rule 30.4; or
  2. cause a boat to be penalized except under rule 30.2, 30.4 or 69 or under rule 14 when she has caused injury or serious damage.